MILA HOUSE BARCELONA
Casa Milà (Catalan articulation: [ˈkazə miˈɫa], Spanish elocution: [ˈkasa miˈla]), prominently known as La Pedrera or "The stone quarry", a reference to its flighty unpleasant slashed appearance, is a pioneer working in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was the last private home outlined by planner Antoni Gaudí and was worked in the vicinity of 1906 and 1912.
The building was charged in 1906 by Pere Milà (ca; es) and his better half Roser Segimon (ca; es). At the time, it was questionable in view of its undulating stone exterior, bending fashioned iron galleries and planned by Josep Maria Jujol. A few auxiliary advancements incorporate a self-supporting stone façade, and a free-design floor, underground carport and the stupendous on the rooftop patio.
In 1984, it was announced a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. From 2013 is the central command of the Fundació Catalunya La Pedrera (ca; es) which deals with the visit to the building, shows and other social and educative exercises at Casa Milà.
Casa Milà was worked for Roser Segimón and her significant other Pere Milà. Roser Segimon was the well-off dowager of Josep Guardiola, an Indiano or Americano, or previous settler came back from South America, had made his fortune with an espresso manor in Guatemala. Her second spouse, Pere Milà was a designer known for his flashy lifestyle.
In 1905, Milà and Segimón wedded and on June 9, Roser Segimón purchased a house with plant which possessed a region of 1,835 square meters, situated on Paseo de Gracia, 92. In September, they appointed Gaudí for building them another house with living in the principal floor and leasing whatever remains of the flats. On February 2, 1906, the undertaking was exhibited to the Barcelona City Council and the works started, crushing the prior working as opposed to transforming it, as on account of the Casa Batlló.
The building was finished in December 1910 and the proprietor requested that Gaudí make an authentication to possess the fundamental floor, which the City Council approved in October 1911, and the couple moved in. On October 31, 1912, Gaudí issued the testament expressing that, as per his designs and his bearing, the work had been finished and the entire house was prepared to be leased.
Critics and debates
The building did not regard any standards of traditional style, for which Gaudí got much feedback. In the first place, the name "La Pedrera" is in truth a moniker appointed by the residents who opposed its unusualness. The interesting structure of the building and the connection between the building's planner and Pere Milà turned into the protest of mocking for the general population of Barcelona and numerous clever distributions of the time.
Gaudí, a Catholic and a lover of the Virgin Mary, got ready for the Casa Milà to be a profound symbol. Overt religious components incorporate a selection from the Rosary on the cornice and arranged statues of Mary, particularly Our Lady of the Rosary, and two chief heavenly messengers, St. Michael and St. Gabriel.
Be that as it may, the Casa Milà was not assembled completely to Gaudí's details. The nearby government requested the destruction of components that surpassed the stature standard for the city and fined the Milàs for some infractions of building codes. After Semana Trágica, a flare-up of anticlericalism in the city, Milà wisely chose to swear off the religious statues. Gaudí mulled over surrendering the undertaking however a minister influenced him to continue.
Change of possession
In 1940, Milà kicked the bucket. Segimon sold the property in 1946 for 18 million pesetas to Josep Ballvé I Pellisé, known for his retail chains on Ronda de Sant Antoni (ca), in association with the group of Pío Rubert Laporta. The Compañía Inmobiliaria Provenza, SA (CIPSA) was established to oversee the building. Roser Segimon kept on living on the primary floor until her passing in 1964.
The new proprietors separated the principal floor confronting Carrer de Provença (ca) into five flats rather than the first two. In 1953, they dispatched Francisco Juan Barba Corsini (es) to change over 13 junk filled storage room pantries to road confronting condos, leaving a public foyer as an afterthought confronting the patios. A portion of these a few room flats had space and was outlined and outfitted in a regular mid-1950s style utilizing block, earthenware, and wood. Things of furniture, for example, the Pedrera seat (ca), were reminiscent of Eero Saarinen's work.
The insurance agency Northern assumed control over the principle floor in 1966. By at that point, Casa Milà had housed a bingo corridor, a foundation and the workplaces of Cementos Molins and Inoxcrom among others. Maintenance costs were high and the proprietors had enabled the working to end up incapacitated, making stones extricate in 1971. Josep Anton Comas made some crisis repairs, particularly to the works of art in the yards, while regarding the first plan.
Gaudí's work was assigned a notable and masterful landmark on July 24, 1969. Casa Milà was in poor condition in the mid-1980s. It had been painted an inauspicious darker and a large number of its inside shading plans had been deserted or permitted to break down, yet it has been reestablished since and a significant number of the first hues revived.
In 1984 the building turned out to be a piece of a World Heritage Site incorporating a portion of Gaudí's works. The Barcelonan city gathering attempted to lease the principle floor as an office for the 1992 Olympic offer. At last, the day preceding Christmas 1986, Caixa Catalunya purchased La Pedrera for 900 million pesetas. On February 19, 1987, critically required work started on the reclamation and cleaning of the façade. The work was finished by the designers Joseph Emilio Hernández-Cross and Rafael Vila. The redesigned principle floor opened in 1990 as a major aspect of the Cultural Olympiad of Barcelona. The floor turned into a presentation live with a case of innovation in the Eixample.
The building is 1,323 m2 for each floor on a plot of 1,620 m2. Gaudí made the primary portrays in his workshop in the Sagrada Família. He composed the house as a steady bend, both outside and inside, fusing ruled geometry and naturalistic components.
Casa Milà comprises of two structures, which are organized around two patios that give light to the nine stories: storm cellar, ground floor, mezzanine, principle (or respectable) floor, four upper floors, and a storage room. The storm cellar was proposed to be the carport, the primary floor the habitation of the Milàs (a level of every one of the 1,323 m2), and the rest dispersed more than 20 lofts. The subsequent design is formed like a hitter kilter "8" as a result of the diverse shapes and sizes of the yards. The storage room housed the clothing and drying territories, framing a protecting space for the building and at the same time deciding the levels of the rooftop.
A standout amongst the most prominent components of the building is the rooftop, delegated with bay windows, staircase ways out, fans, and stacks. These components, developed out of block secured with lime, broken marble, or glass have a particular engineering capacity but on the other hand are genuine figures coordinated into the building.
The lofts include put roofs with dynamic reliefs, high-quality wooden entryways, windows, and furniture, and additionally water driven tiles and different fancy components.
The stairways were proposed as administration sections, with the principal access to the flats by lift aside from the honorable floor, where Gaudí included an unmistakable inside staircase. Gaudí needed the general population who lived in the pads to all to know each other. Subsequently, there were just lifts on each other floor, so individuals on various floors would meet each other.
Casa Milà is portrayed by its self-supporting stone exterior, implying that it is free of load-bearing dividers. The exterior associates with the inward structure of each floor by methods for bent iron shafts encompassing the edge of each floor. This development framework permits, on one hand, substantial openings in the veneer which offer light to the homes, and on the other, free organizing of the distinctive levels, so inner dividers can be included and destroyed without influencing the solidness of the building. This enables the proprietors to alter their opinions freely and to adjust, without issues, the inside format of the homes.
Mila House Barcelona - Valuable and beautiful things
The veneer is made out of huge squares of limestone from the Garraf Massif on the primary floor and from the Villefranche quarry for the more elevated amounts. The squares were sliced to take after the plot of the projection of the model, at that point raised to their area and acclimated to adjust in a nonstop bend to the pieces around them.
Seen from the outside the building has three sections: the principal body of the six-story hinders with winding stone floors, two stories set a square back with an alternate bend, like waves, a smoother surface and more white shading, and with little gaps that resemble embrasures, lastly the body of the roof.
Gaudí's unique veneer had a portion of its lower-level ironwork evacuated. In 1928, the tailor Mosella opened the primary store in La Pedrera, and he disposed of the bars. This did not concern anybody, in light of the fact that amidst the twentieth century, fashioned ironwork had little significance. The ironwork was lost until a couple of years after the fact when Americans gave one of them to the MoMa, where it is in plain view.
With rebuilding activities propelled in 1987, the exterior was rejoined to a few bits of stone that had fallen. With a specific end goal to regard the devotion of the first, the material was gotten from the Villefranche quarry, despite the fact that by then it was never again operating.
Lobby and yards
The building utilizes a totally unique answer to settle the issue of an anteroom being excessively shut and dim. Its open and vaporous yards give a position of travel and are specifically unmistakable to those getting to the building. There are two porches in favor of the Passeig de Gracia and of the road Provence.
Yards, fundamentally, are key as supporting heaps of inside veneers. The floor of the yard is bolstered by mainstays of solid metal. In the patio, there are customary circular bars and supports yet Gaudí connected a shrewd arrangement of utilizing two concentric round and hollow pillars with extended spiral bars, similar to the spokes of a bike. They frame a point outside of the bar to two focuses above and underneath, making the capacity of the focal brace a cornerstone and working under pressure and pressure all the while. This upheld structure is twelve feet in the distance across and is viewed as "the spirit of the working" with a reasonable similarity to Gothic graves. The focal point was worked in a shipyard by Josep Maria Carandell who replicated a controlling wheel, translating Gaudí's goal as to speak to the steerage of the ship of life.
Access is ensured by a gigantic iron entryway with an outline ascribed to Jujol. It was initially utilized by the two individuals and autos, as access to the carport is in the storm cellar, now a theater.
The two corridors are completely polychrome with oil artistic creations on the mortar surfaces, with mixed references to folklore and blossoms.
Amid development, there was an issue including a storm cellar as a carport for autos, the new innovation that was exciting the middle class at the time. The future neighbor Felix Anthony Meadows, proprietor of Industrial Linera, asked for a change since his Rolls Royce couldn't get to it. Gaudí consented to expel a column on the incline that drove into the carport so Felix, who was setting up deals and industrial facility in Walls of Valles, could go to the two spots with his auto from La Pedrera.
For the floors of Casa Milà, Gaudí utilized a model of floor types of square timbers with two hues, and the water-powered asphalt hexagonal bits of blue and ocean themes that had initially been intended for the Batllo house. The wax was composed in dark by John Bertrand under the supervision of Gaudí who "contacted up with their own particular fingers," in the expressions of the maker Josep Bay.
Like in Casa Batlló, Gaudí demonstrates the use of the catenary curve as a help structure for the rooftop, a shape which he had effectively utilized not long after graduating in the wood systems of Mataró's agreeable known as "L'Obrera Mataronense." For this situation, Gaudí utilized the Catalan procedure of timbrel, imported from Italy in the fourteenth century.
The upper room, where the pantries were found, was an unmistakable room under a Catalan vault rooftop upheld by 270 explanatory vaults of various statures and separated by around 80 cm. The rooftop takes after both the ribs of a colossal creature and a palm, giving the rooftop deck an exceptionally offbeat shape like a scene of slopes and valleys. The shape and area of the patios make the curves higher when space is limited and lower when space grows.
The manufacturer Bayó clarified its development: "First the substance of a wide divider was loaded with mortar and put. At that point, Canaleta showed the opening of each curve and Bayó put a nail at each beginning stage of the curve at the highest point of the divider. From these nails was dangled a chain so the most reduced point harmonized with the diversion of the curve. At that point the profile showed on the divider by the chain was drawn and on this profile, the woodworker stamped and set the relating focusing, and the timbrel vault was begun with three columns of plane blocks. Gaudí needed to include a longitudinal pivot of blocks interfacing all vaults at their cornerstones".
Rooftop and smokestacks
Crafted by Gaudí on the housetop of La Pedrera brought his involvement with Palau Güell together with arrangements that were plainly more inventive – this time making shapes and volumes with more body, more unmistakable quality, and less polychromasia. <Permanyer, either 1996 or 2008>
On the housetop there are six bay windows/staircase exits (four of which were secured with broken earthenware and some that finished in a betray run of the mill of Gaudí), twenty-eight smokestacks in a few groupings, two half-concealed vents whose capacity is to recharge the air in the building, and four vaults that released to the veneer. The staircases likewise house the water tanks; some of which are snail-formed.
The ventured top of La Pedrera, called "the garden of warriors" by the artist Pere Gimferrer on the grounds that the smokestacks give off an impression of being securing the bay windows, has experienced a radical rebuilding, evacuating stacks included mediations after Gaudí, TV receiving wires, and different components that debased the space. The reclamation conveyed back the quality to the smokestacks and the bay windows that were secured with sections of marble and broken Valencia tiles. One of the smokestacks was finished with glass pieces – it was said that Gaudí did that the day after the initiation of the building, exploiting the unfilled jugs from the gathering. It was reestablished with the bases of champagne bottles from the mid-twentieth century. The repair work has empowered the reclamation of the first effect of the shades made of stone from Ulldecona with parts of tiles. This entire set is more brilliant than the exterior, albeit here the smooth tones are dominant.
Gaudí, as he had done in Casa Batlló, planned furniture, particularly for the primary floor. This was a piece of the idea work of art itself necessary to innovation in which the planner accepted accountability for worldwide issues, for example, the structure and the veneer, and in addition, everything about the stylistic theme, outlining furniture and extras, for example, lights, grower, floors or roofs.
This was another purpose of contact with Segimon, who griped that there was no straight divider to put her Steinway piano. Gaudí's reaction was limit: "So play the violin." The consequence of these differences has been the loss of the brightening heritage of Gaudí, as the vast majority of the furniture was expelled because of environmental change and the progressions she made to the principal floor when Gaudí passed on. Some stay in private accumulations, including a blind made of oak 4 m. long by 1.96 m. high in the Museum of Catalan Modernism; and a seat and work area of Milà.
Gaudí cut oak entryways like what he had improved the situation the Casa y Bardes, yet these were just included on two stories as to when Segimon found the value, she chose there would be no more at that quality.
Casa Milà is a piece of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Works of Antoni Gaudí". It was an ancestor of a few structures with a comparative biomorphic appearance:
- the 1921 Einstein Tower in Potsdam, planned by Erich Mendelsohn
- Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in Manhattan, New York, planned by Frank Lloyd Wright
- Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, planned by Le Corbusier
- the Hundertwasserhaus and different works by Austrian planner Friedensreich Hundertwasser
- Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, by Frank Gehry
Free displays frequently are hung on the principal floor, which additionally gives some chance to see the inside plan. There is a charge for access to the flat on the fourth floor and the rooftop. Alternate floors are not open to guests.
Gaudí's La Pedrera was enlivened by a mountain, however, there is no understanding as to which mountain was the reference display. Joan Bergós thought it was the stones of Fray Guerau in Prades mountains. Joan Matamala felt that the model could have been St. Miquel del Fai, while the stone carver Vicente Vilarubias trusted it was enlivened by the precipices Torrent Pareis in Menorca. Different choices incorporate the mountains of Uçhisar in Cappadocia, proposed by Juan Goytisolo, or Mola Gallifa, recommended by Louis Permanyer, in view of the way that Gaudí went by the zone in 1885, escaping an episode of cholera in Barcelona.
A few people say that the inside format of La Pedrera originates from thinks about that Gaudí made of medieval fortifications. This picture is strengthened by the appealing appearance of the housetop stacks as "sentinels" with awesome helmets. The structure of the iron entryway in the hall does not take after any symmetry, straight or redundant example. Or maybe, it brings out rises of cleanser that are framed between the hands or the structures of a plant cell.
Feedback and debate
The building's eccentric style made it the subject of much feedback. It was given the epithet "La Pedrera", signifying "the quarry". Casa Milà showed up in numerous humorous magazines. Joan Junceda exhibited it as a customary "Easter cake" by methods for kid's shows in Patufet. Joaquim Garcia made a joke about the trouble of setting the damask created press overhangs in his magazine. Homeowners in Passeig de Gracia ended up irate with Milà and stopped to welcome him, contending that the strange working by Gaudí would bring down the cost of land in the region.
Casa Milà likewise caused some regulatory issues. In December 1907 the City Hall halted to take a shot at the building as a result of a column which possessed a piece of the walkway, not regarding the arrangement of veneers. Again on August 17, 1908, more issues happened when the building outperformed the anticipated stature and fringes of its building site by 4,000 square meters (43,000 sq ft). The Council required a fine of 100,000 pesetas (around 25% of the cost of work) or for the decimation of the upper room and rooftop. The debate was settled 18 months after the fact, December 28, 1909, when the Commission confirmed that it was a fantastic building and in this manner not required to have a 'strict consistency' with the bylaws.
The proprietor entered La Pedrera in the yearly Barcelona Artistic Buildings Competition (ca; es) supported by the Barcelona City Council (Ayuntament). Different sections in the opposition included two works by Sagnier (Calle Mallorca 264, and one on Corsica and Av. Corner to corner), the Casa Gustà (ca) by draftsman Jaume Gustà (ca; es), and the Casa Pérez Samanillo (ca), outlined by Joan Josep Hervàs (ca; es). In spite of the fact that the most emotional and clear most loved was Casa Milà the jury opined that despite the fact that the veneers were finished, "there's still a great deal left to do before it's completely finished, concluded and in an ideal condition of appreciation." The victor in 1910 was Samanillo Perez, for his building which presently houses the base camp of the Circulo Ecuestre.
Gaudí's relations with Segimon disintegrated amid the development and improvement of the house. There were numerous contradictions between them, one case was the amazing bronze virgin del Rosario, which Gaudí needed as the statue on the front of the working in respect to the name of the proprietor, that the craftsman Carles Mani I Roig was to shape. The statue was not made despite the fact that the words "Ave gratia M full Dominus tecum" were composed at the highest point of the veneer. Proceeding with contradictions drove Gaudí to indict Milà over his charges. The claim was won by Gaudí in 1916, and he gave the 105,000 pesetas he won for the situation to philanthropy, expressing that "the standards made a difference more than cash." Milà was paying the mortgage.
After Gaudí's passing in 1926, Segimon disposed of a large portion of the furniture that Gaudí had planned and secured over parts of Gaudí's outlines with new enhancements in the style of Louis XVI. La Pedrera was procured in 1986 by Caixa Catalunya (ca; es) and when rebuilding was completed four years after the fact, a portion of the first beautifications re-emerged.
At the point when the Civil War broke out in July 1936, the Milàs were in the midst of some recreation. Some portion of the building was collectivized by the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia; the Milàs fled the region with some artwork.